Culture is one of the most challenging elements of the international marketplace. This system of learned behavior patterns characteristic of the members of a given society is constantly shaped by a set of dynamic variables: language, religion, values and attitudes, manners and customs, aesthetics, technology, education, and social institutions. To cope with this system, an international manager needs both factual and interpretive knowledge of culture. To some extent, the factual knowledge can be learned; its interpretation comes only through experience.
The most complicated problems in dealing with the cultural environment stem from the fact that one cannot learn culture — one has to live it. Two schools of thought exist in the business world on how to deal with cultural diversity. One is that business is business the world around, following the model of Pepsi and McDonald’s. In some cases, globalization is a fact of life; however, cultural differences are still far from converging.
The other school proposes that companies must tailor business approaches to individual cultures. Setting up policies and procedures in each country has been compared to an organ transplant; the critical question centers around acceptance or rejection. The major challenge to the international manager is to make sure that rejection is not a result of cultural myopia or even blindness.
Fortune examined the international performance of a dozen large companies that earn 20 percent or more of their revenue overseas. The internationally successful companies all share an important quality: patience. They have not rushed into situations but rather built their operations carefully by following the most basic business principles. These principles are to know your adversary, know your audience, and know your customer.
81. According to the passage, which of the following is true?
A. All international managers can learn culture.
B. Business diversity is not necessary.
C. Views differ on how to treat culture in business world.
D. Most people do not know foreign culture well.
82. According to the author, the model of Pepsi ______.
A. is in line with the theories that the business is business the world around
B. is different from the model of McDonald’s
C. shows the reverse of globalization
D. has converged cultural differences
83. The two schools of thought ______.
A. both propose that companies should tailor business approaches to individual cultures
B. both advocate that different policies be set up in different countries
C. admit the existence of cultural diversity in business world
D. both A and B
84. This article is supposed to be most useful for those ______.
A. who are interested in researching the topic of cultural diversity
B. who have connections to more than one type of culture
C. who want to travel abroad
D. who want to run business on International Scale
85. According to Fortune, successful international companies ______.
A. earn 20 percent or more of their revenue overseas
B. all have the quality of patience
C. will follow the overseas local cultures
D. adopt the policy of internationalization