When groups are asked to think creatively the reason they frequently fail is because implicit norms constrain them in the most explicit ways. This is clearly demonstrated in a recent study carried out by Adarves-Yorno et al. (2006). They asked two groups of participants to create posters and subtly gave each group a norm about either using more words on the poster or more images.
Afterwards when they judged each others’ work, participants equated creativity with following the group norm; the ‘words’ group rated posters with more words as more creative and the ‘images’ group rated posters with more images as more creative. The unwritten rules of the group, therefore, determined what its members considered creative. In effect groups had redefined creativity as conformity.
In another part of the same experiment these results were reversed when people’s individuality rather than their group membership was emphasized. Creativity became all about being different from others and being inconsistent with group norms. When freed from the almost invisible shackles of the group, then, people suddenly remembered the dictionary definition of creativity: to transcend the orthodox.
71. Why did the two groups have different opinions on creativity?
A. Because they both wanted to show that they were creative.
B. Because they refined creativity according to their own standards.
C. Because individuals in each group were influenced by the other members.
D. Because they were influenced by the subtle norms given to them.
72. What does the author mainly want to express?
A. A study carried out by Adarves-Yorno et al in 2006.
B. People’s creativity will be influenced by group norm.
C. What is creativity.
D. Different groups have different creativities.
73. According to the dictionary definition, creativity is _____.
A. to be different from others
B. to be beyond the others’ imagination
C. to transcend the limits
D. to surpass the tradition